Ticino, formally the Republic and Canton of Ticino is the southernmost canton of Switzerland. Ticino borders the Canton of Uri to the north, Valais to the west, Graubünden to the northeast, Italys regions of Piedmont and Lombardy to the south and it surrounds the small Italian exclave of Campione dItalia. Named after the Ticino river, it is the only canton where Italian is the sole official language and represents the bulk of the Italian-speaking area of Switzerland along with the southern parts of Graubünden. The land now occupied by the canton was annexed from Italian cities in the 15th century by various Swiss forces in the last transalpine campaigns of the Old Swiss Confederacy. In the Helvetic Republic, established 1798, it was divided between the two new cantons of Bellinzona and Lugano. The creation of the Swiss Confederation in 1803 saw these two cantons combine to form the modern canton of Ticino.