Pforzheim is a city of nearly 120,000 inhabitants in the federal state of Baden-Württemberg, in the southwest of Germany. It is known for its jewelry and watch-making industry, and as such has gained the nickname "Goldstadt". It has an area of and is situated between the cities of Stuttgart and Karlsruhe at the confluence of three rivers and marks the frontier between Baden and Württemberg, being located on Baden territory. From 1535 to 1565 it was the home to the Margraves of Baden-Pforzheim. The City of Pforzheim does not belong to any administrative district, although it hosts the administrative offices of the Enz district that surrounds the town. During World War II, Pforzheim was bombed a number of times. The largest raid, and one of the most devastating area bombardments of World War II, was carried out by the Royal Air Force on the evening of 23 February 1945. Nearly a third of the towns population, 17,600 people, were killed in the air raid, and about 83% of the towns buildings were destroyed. The town was thought by the Allies to be producing precision instruments for use in the German war effort and to be a transport centre for the movement of German troops. The story of the bombardment is dramatically recounted in the 2011 history book by Giles Milton, entitled Wolfram: The Boy Who Went To War. In the twenty years following the end of the war, Pforzheim was gradually rebuilt, giving the town a quite modern look and making it home to some landmark buildings of the 1950s.